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climates

Very Cold - A very cold climate is defined as a region with approximately 9,000 heating degree days or greater (65°F basis) or greater and less than 12,600 heating degree days (65°F basis).

Cold - A cold climate is defined as a region with approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 9,000 heating degree days (65°F basis).

Mixed-Humid - A mixed-humid and warm-humid climate is defined as a region that receives more than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 4,500 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) and less than approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) and where the average monthly outdoor temperature drops below 45°F during the winter months.

Hot-Humid - A hot-humid climate is defined as a region that receives more than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and where the monthly average outdoor temperature remains above 45°F throughout the year. This definition characterizes a region that is similar to the ASHRAE definition of hot-humid climates where one or both of the following occur:

  • a 67°F r higher wet bulb temperature for 3,000 or more hours during the warmest six consecutive months of the year; or
  • a 73°F or higher wet bulb temperature for 1,500 or more hours during the warmest six consecutive months of the year.

Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry - A hot-dry climate is defined as region that receives less than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis)or greater and where the monthly average outdoor temperature remains above 45°F throughout the year.

A warm-dry and mixed-dry climate is defined as a region that receives less than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 4,500 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) and less than approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) and where the average monthly outdoor temperature drops below 45°F during the winter months.

Marine - A marine climate meets is defined as a region where all of the following occur:

  • a mean temperature of the coldest month between 27°F and 65°F;
  • a mean temperature of the warmest month below 72°F;
  • at least four months with mean temperatures over 50°F; and
  • a dry season in the summer, the month with the heaviest precipitation in the cold season has at least three times as much precipitation as the month with the least precipitation.

information

Building Science Insights are short discussions on a particular topic of general interest. They are intended to highlight one or more building science principles. The discussion is informal and sometimes irreverent but never irrelevant.

Building Science Digests provide building professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds with concise overview of important building science topics. Digests explain the theory behind each topic and then translate this theory into practical information.

Published Articles aare a selected set of articles written by BSC personnel and published in professional and trade magazines that address building science topics. For example, our work has appeared in Fine Homebuilding, Home Energy, ASHRAE's High Performance Buildings, The Journal of Building Enclosure Design and The Journal of Building Physics. We thank these publications for their gracious permission to republish.

Conference Papers are peer-reviewed papers published in conference proceedings.

Research Reports are technical reports written for researchers but accessible to design professionals and builders. These reports typically provide an in-depth study of a particular topic or describe the results of a research project. They are often peer reviewed and also provide support for advice given in our Building Science Digests.

Building America Reports are technical reports funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research program.

Designs That Work are residential Case Studies and House Plans developed by BSC to be appropriate for residential construction in specific climate zones. Case Studies provide a summary of results for homes built in partnership with BSC’s Building America team. The case study typically includes enclosure and mechanical details, testing performed, builder profile, and unique project highlights. House Plans are fully integrated construction drawing sets that include floor plans, framing plans and wall framing elevations, exterior elevations, building and wall sections, and mechanical and electrical plans.

Enclosures That Work are Building Profiles and High R-Value Assemblies developed by BSC to be appropriate for residential construction in specific climate zones. Building Profiles are residential building cross sections that include enclosure and mechanical design recommendations. Most profiles also include field expertise notes, material compatibility analysis, and climate challenges. High R-Value Assemblies are summaries of the results of BSC's ongoing High R-Value Enclosure research — a study that BSC has undertaken for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research program to identify and evaluate residential assemblies that cost-effectively provide 50 percent improvement in thermal resistance.

Guides and Manuals are "how-to" documents, giving advice and instructions on specific building techniques and methods. Longer guides and manuals include background information to help facilitate a strong understanding of the building science behind the hands-on advice. This section also contains two quick, easy-to-read series. The IRC FAQ series answers common questions about the building science approach to specific building tasks (for example, insulating a basement). The READ THIS: Before... series offers guidelines and recommendations for everyday situations such as moving into a new home or deciding to renovate.

Information Sheets are short, descriptive overviews of basic building science topics and are useful both as an introduction to building science and as a handy reference that can be easily printed for use in the field, in a design meeting, or at the building permit counter. Through illustrations, photographs, and straightforward explanations, each Information Sheet covers the essential aspects of a single topic. Common, avoidable mistakes are also examined in the What's Wrong with this Project? and What's Wrong with this Practice? mini-series.

Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes the truss wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes spray foam wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes SIPs wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. A more detailed analysis and direct comparison to several other walls can be...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes the offset frame wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes non-combustible steel framing using mineral fiber insulation board including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes ICF wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional hygrothermal...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes flash-and-fill hybrid wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes EIFS wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional hygrothermal...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes double stud with spray foam wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes double stud wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes 2x6 advanced frame wall construction using mineral fiber insulation board including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional...
Enclosures that Work
This overview summarizes 2x6 advanced frame wall construction including the advantages and disadvantages of this construction strategy. Complex two dimensional heat flow analysis and one dimensional...
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This summarizes an uninsulated basement even though the code requirements in DOE climate zones 4 and higher do not allow an uninsulated basement in new construction where the basement is conditioned...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This is another alternative to the minimum code required basement insulation in DOE climate zones 4 and higher. This construction uses a 2x4 framed wall against the concrete foundation with R-13...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This construction uses insulated concrete form (ICF) with 2" XPS rigid insulation on the interior and exterior of the concrete foundation wall. The slab is insulated with 2" XPS rigid insulation...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This construction uses continuous R-10 or R-13 batt insulation on the interior of the concrete foundation wall. The slab is left uninsulated and the rim joist is insulated with batt insulation. ...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This construction uses 2x4 framed wall offset 2.5" from concrete with 6" open cell low density spray foam (R-21) between and behind the stud wall. The slab is insulated with 2" XPS rigid insulation...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
The figure below shows 2" XPS or foil-faced polyisocyanurate rigid insulation and 6" open cell low density spray foam insulation installed on the interior of the rimjoist and foundation wall, and 2...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This construction uses 2 layers of 2" XPS rigid insulation on the exterior of the concrete foundation wall. The slab is insulated with 2" XPS rigid insulation under slab and the rim joist is...
Cold
High R-Value Foundation AssembliesEnclosures that Work
This construction uses 4"  XPS rigid insulation between two 2" concrete foundation walls tied with connector rods. The slab is insulated with 2" XPS rigid insulation under slab and the rim joist is...
Cold

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